Teachers’ Intercultural Communicative Competence and Intercultural Sensitivity: An Investigation of Emergency Online Classes in Higher Education
Keywords:Intercultural Communicative Competence, Intercultural Sensitivity, EFL Teachers, Online classes.
The study aims to ascertain whether intervention workshops held for Iranian EFL teachers had any effect on their knowledge of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) or of intercultural sensitivity (IS). The study investigated the effect of knowledge about ICC and IS on the practice of EFL teachers. 30 EFL teachers participated in a six-session workshop on ICC and IS, and completed the ICC Questionnaire (Zhou, 2011) and the IS Questionnaire (Chen & Starosta, 2000) before and again after the workshops. A further 10 teachers underwent a semi-structured interview designed to obtain their knowledge of ICC and IS. In addition, 10 classes were observed and 10 students took part in a semi-structured interview to identify the effect of ICC and IS knowledge on teachers’ practice. The results indicated that the intervention workshops had a significant effect on both the teachers’ ICC and IS knowledge. All respondents considered themselves interculturally competent and sensitive English teachers who showed respect for different cultures. It was also found that knowledge about ICC and IS had influenced EFL teachers’ practice. These findings have the potential to raise EFL teachers’ awareness of the prominence of ICC and IS, and inspire them to seek opportunities for improvement and consequently improve their job performance.
Arcagok, S., & Yılmaz, C. (2020). Intercultural sensitivities: A mixed methods study with pre-service EFL teachers in Turkey. Issues in Educational Research Journal, 30(1), 1–18.
Ayala-Asencio, C. E. (2020). Intercultural competences: Impacts of the workshop “communicating” on intercultural sensitivity of university teachers. Revista Electrónica Educare, 24(3), 370-386.
Bennett, M. J. (1986). A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity.
International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 179–196.
Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Brislin, R. (1992). The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16(4), 413–436.
Boudouaia, A., Wint War Htun, K., Al-Qadri, A. H., Saroh, Y., & Beddiaf, A. (2022). Intercultural sensitivity of English language teachers in Algeria. Cogent Education, 9(1), 1-13.
Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (1997). A review of concepts of intercultural sensitivity. Human Communication, 1(5), 1–16.
Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (2000). The development and validation of the international communication sensitivity scale. Human Communication, 3(1), 2–14.
Clouet, R. (2012). Studying the role of intercultural cultural competence in language teaching in upper secondary education. Onomazein, 26(2), 309-334
Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization at institutions of higher education in the United States. Journal of Studies in Intercultural Education, 10(3), 241-266.
Deardorff, D. K. (2009). The Sage handbook of intercultural competence. California: SAGE Publications.
Dong, Q., Day, D. K., & Collaço, M. C. (2008). Overcoming ethnocentrism through developing intercultural communication sensitivity and multiculturalism. Human Communication, 11(1), 27–38.
Estaji, M., & Rahimi, A. (2018). Exploring teachers’ perception of intercultural communicative competence and their practices for teaching culture in EFL classrooms. International Journal of Society, Culture & Language, 6(2), 1-18.
Garrido, C., & Álvarez, I. (2006). Language teacher education for intercultural understanding.
European Journal of Teacher Education, 29(2), 163–179.
Ghanem, C. (2017). Teaching intercultural communicative competence: the perspective of foreign language graduate instructors. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 11(2), 1-9.
Gilakjani, A. P., & Sabouri, N. B. (2017). Teachers' beliefs in English language teaching and
learning: A review of the literature. English Language Teaching, 10(4), 78-86.
Ghajarieh, A., Jalali, N., & Mozaheb, M. (2019). An investigation into the classroom talk of Iranian EFL novice vs. experienced teachers. Register Journal, 12(2), 100-125. doi:https://doi.org/10.18326/rgt.v12i2.100-125
Ghajarieh, A., Salami, A. (2016). Gendered Representations of Male and Female Social Actors in Iranian Educational Materials. Gender Issues, 33, 258–270 doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12147-016-9157-6
Haberman, M. (1991). Can cultural awareness be taught in teacher education programs? Teaching Education, 4(1), 25-32.
Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 421–443.
Jandt, F. E. (1995). Intercultural communication: An introduction. Sage.
Jokikokko, J. (2005). Interculturally trained Finnish teachers’ conceptions of diversity and intercultural competence. Intercultural Education, 16, 69-93.
Kazazoglu, S., & Ece, E. (2021). Exploring pre-service and novice EFL teachers' intercultural sensitivity. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 15(1), 76-89.
Liddicoat, A. J., & Scarino, A. (2013). Intercultural language teaching and learning. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blakwell.
Luk, J. (2012). Teachers’ ambivalence in integrating culture with EFL teaching in Hong Kong. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 25(3), 249-264.
Martin, L. C. (2012). International student teaching in non-western cultures: Impact on first-year teachers. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Iowa State University, Ames, IA.
Mostafaei Alaei, M., & Nosrati, F. (2018). Research into EFL teachers’ intercultural communicative competence and intercultural sensitivity. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 47(2), 73-86.
Sercu, L. (2006). The foreign language and intercultural competence teacher: The acquisition of a
new professional identity. Intercultural Education, 17(1), 55–72.
Sercu, L., Mendez Garcia, M. D. C., & Castro Prieto, P. (2004). Culture teaching in foreign language education. EFL teachers in Spain as cultural mediators. Porta Linguarum, 10(1), 85–102.
Tajeddin, Z., & Rezanejad, A. (2018). Intercultural teaching in L2 classrooms: Exploring English language teachers’ beliefs. The International Journal of Humanities, 25(3), 79-97.
Young, T. J., & Sachdev, I. (2011). Intercultural communicative competence: Exploring English language teachers’ beliefs and practices. Language Awareness, 20 (2), 81- 98.
Zamanian, J., & Seidi, M. (2017). Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions, practices and problems regarding raising students’ intercultural awareness. International Journal of English Linguistics, 7(4), 275- 266.
Zhou, Y. (2011). A study of Chinese university EFL teachers and their intercultural competence
teaching (Doctoral dissertation). University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Amir Ghajarieh, Samaneh Safiyar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
REGISTER JOURNAL : Register Journal (uinsalatiga.ac.id) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
An author who publishes in REGISTER JOURNAL agrees to the following terms:
- Author retains the copyright and grants the journal the right of first publication of the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal
- Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book) with the acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Author is permitted and encouraged to post his/her work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of the published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Read more about the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence here: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.